There is a powerful case to be made for the United States to conduct international space cooperation activities. In this chapter, we will discuss how cooperation allows a nation to leverage resources and reduce risk; improve efficiency; expand international engagement; and enhance diplomatic prestige of engaged states, political sustainability and workforce stability. Unfortunately, although the case for international space cooperation is powerful, the obstacles and impediments to cooperation are substantial, and are manifested through various anti-collaborative behaviors. From a US perspective, cooperation is successfully achieved only after the undertaking and absorbing great expense, and understanding and confronting other obstacles and impediments. To that end, we will examine the challenges posed by technology transfer constraints, international and domestic politics, and exceptionalism perspectives. Finally, depending on the circumstances, four frameworks of cooperation can be employed to overcome these impediments: Coordination, Augmentation, Interdependence, and Integration. This paper will detail these frameworks and their issues.
This paper was first published as part of International Cooperation for the Development of Space, published by the Aerospace Technology Working Group (ATWG) and included on this site through the courtesy of ATWG, ISU and the individual authors.
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